Using Major League Soccer as a unique dataset, this study examines the direct andindirect role of coaches’ experience in determining team performance. Inspired by labormarket studies, we applied traditional indicators of team salary structure and, unlikeprevious studies, empirically test the hypothesis that coach experience affects the way inwhich team salary distribution inuences performance. Our results suggest that coacheswith experience as professional soccer players improve team performance directly butworsen the negative effect of a skewed s alary distribution. Moreover, experience as aplayer is more important than coaching experience. (JEL D3, J3, M5)
The purpose of this paper is to analyse simultaneously the effect of attendance at the stadium on the size of the TV audience, taking into account the effect of price and uncertainty of outcome hypothesis on both the TV audience and stadium attendance. The paper assumes that a home-team effect exists and influences potential spectators’ decision to go to the stadium or to stay at home.
The data set consists of all 228 matches broadcast live and on open air from the Brazilian League across the seasons 2013–2015. The econometric approach of the present paper is based on three simultaneous equations through the Three-Stage Least Square estimator. This method is chosen in order to avoid endogeneity between ticket prices and live attendance and, consequently, with the television audience, too.
This work finds a correlation between TV audience and attendance at the stadium. However, it has been demonstrated that those matches that are more expensive have a larger TV audience. Scheduling and UO appear to be relevant for TVs and clubs. Scheduling is relevant, as weekend matches have a smaller TV audience but higher attendance at the stadium.
The findings indicate that Brazilian football clubs should find optimal prices for matches in order to maximise both TV audience and attendance.
Analysing simultaneously the effect of attendance at the stadium on the size of the TV audience, taking into account the effect of price on all three of these variables, is new. Another novel aspect is the use of data on audience size to observe a possible substitution effect. The authors also distinguish between home and away matches, assuming that a home-team effect exists and influences potential spectators’ decision to go to the stadium or to stay at home.
We analyse the determinants of football fans’ happiness in the Russian Premier League using facial emotion recognition. We propose a new way of measuring subjective well-being and provide its empirical validation using sports data. Our sample consists of about 10,000 photos from football matches uploaded on the most popular social network in Russia during the seasons 2014/15–2017/18. The dataset of photos is analysed with the Emotion Recognition software, which takes a facial expression in an image as an input and returns the confidence across a set of emotions for each face in the image. Next we use multinomial logistic regression to identify the determinants of happiness. The results show that uncertainty and expectations are important drivers of football fans’ happiness. A win decreases the probability of being unhappy, and the effect becomes stronger for late rounds of a national championship. The change in happiness because of a home team win is stronger for males.
The Russian government has programs to assist Russian companies with financial and organizational support. Award of procurement contracts may also serve as assistance to companies. This paper uses data from a survey of Russian companies to draw inferences about the motivation behind the choice of recipients. Possible motivations are an intent to foster economic development, successful rent-seeking by recipients or simply corruption. The evidence is mixed. There is support for both the economic development motive and rent-seeking in the analysis of financial and organizational support. A role for corruption is most evident in the procurement contract results.
Growing importance of human resources places the role of managers at the core of company efficiency. However, there are studies that demonstrate the efficiency of teams without a manager, so-called self-managed teams, is higher comparing with managed teams. Thus, despite the focus on managerial efficiency in the economic literature, the issue of whether a team needs amanager is far from settled. In this paper, we use a quasiexperimental setting from e-Sports (competitive video gaming) to understand whether the hiring a manager is of benefit to team performance. The empirical part of the study is based on endogenous switching regression model. This method allows investigating what performance of self-managed team would be if it will have a manager and vice versa. The dataset includes the information of prize money and features of top e-Sports teams in Counter-Strike: Global Offensive (e-Sports discipline) from 2013 to 2017. The main finding of this study is that managed teams perform better than self-managed ones but this is not due to the manager.
Prior research into the relationship between firm ownership structure and board of director independence has been conducted in a variety of international settings and has led to mixed results. Given this divergence, we meta-analyze 127 studies in order to test whether different types of owners (if a firm's ownership lies mainly in the hands of managers, families or institutions) explain these mixed results. We also examine whether the institutional context (civil, common or emerging legal system) may moderate the relationship between ownership concentration and type of owner and board independence. We find that ownership concentration has a significant negative relation with board independence in common law countries, and when firms are under managerial or family control. In contrast, the relation is positive for firms in civil law countries or for firms owned by institutional investors. Thus, our paper reveals differences in the relation between ownership concentration and board of director independence contingent on type of owner and the institutional context in which the firm operates. Our researchhaspracticalimplicationsforpractitionersandpolicymakers, and provides them with certain guide lines aimed at achieving the most efficient design for corporate governance mechanisms.
This paper examines whether or not the relative importance of the firm and industry effects in explaining performance variations is the same regardless of the firm size. In relation to size, we think that there has been particular neglect of studying medium-sized firms separately from SMEs in general. That is why we study separately large, medium-sized and small firms. We also contribute to knowledge on the firm-industry debate testing empirically both effects distinguishing the firms by size according to a standard classification in the EU. Our results show that the performances of large and small firms are mainly explained by the firm effect, albeit for different reasons, while the performance of medium-sized firms is explained primarily by the industry effect.
The aim of the present chapter is to deliver an overview of professional football leagues, tournaments, and competitions. The first section is related to geographical issues, as professional football tournaments are usually organised taking into account geographical levels, like domestic (i.e., regional, national, etc.) and international (i.e., continental and world level) perspectives. Then, the most common competitive designs are explained – such as round robin and knockout championships – in the second section. The third section explains some of the main constraints of football scheduling such as breaks, travel distances, and carry-over effects. The fourth section describes scheduling optimisations, giving some real examples and their achievements. The last section is dedicated to the changes that professional football leagues have been making, finishing with some concluding remarks.
This paper tests the hypothesis that stress tests are primarily a function of the fundamental financial condition and operating environment of individual banks, rather than alternative adverse economic and financial scenarios imposed by regulators. We develop a novel early warning system based on multiple strategy ensemble methods to predict whether European banks pass stress tests in 2010, 2011 and 2014. The model is able to identify over 98% of failing and passing banks in the training subsample and predict about 90% of banks in the test validation sample. Further analyses of predictor importance and robustness compared to other competing model approaches are conducted. Our evidence supports the conclusion that, regardless of different macroeconomic scenarios, surviving stress tests depends largely on the underlying risk dimensions of individual banks.
Key topics of the conference:Empirical economics, firms and industry studies Quantitative corporate and international finance SMART marketing and customer analytics New HR trends and people analytics Game theory and market design Institutions of Public Sector: Empirical Evidence Intangible-driven economy and data-led business models BRICS: emerging trends, leapfrogging and reverse innovations National and regional innovation systems Corporate innovations and competitive advantages Big data for business and economics studies
The influence of socio-economic factors on the demand for football is under-investigated. This paper aims to offer evidence about the effects of socio-economic factors and historical success of clubs in the demand for tickets in all Brazilian League tiers. All football clubs that have participated at least once in one of the four Brazilian League Divisions from seasons 2013 to 2015 have been analyzed. The econometric approach consists of panel data ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions. Interaction terms are included to see the effect of historical success and socio-economic factors in different divisions. As a methodological contribution, an index to measure the historical success of clubs has been developed. This indicator evidences that successful clubs in the past are still driving fans attention together with current performance, increasing then seasonal attendance rates. Finally, this paper offers evidence that higher socio-economic indicators play an important role in attracting fans at lower levels as well.
Some cities strategically plan multiple small and medium-size sport events on different dates in their annual calendar of activities and avoid focusing on a single event of great magnitude. This is how the concept of a sport-event portfolio arises. This article aims to present a method to quantify the injection of sports-tourism money into a city from a portfolio of events. This methodology is applied to the portfolio of a small town with a policy oriented toward the promotion of tourism through the organization of sport events. The income generated by sports tourists in the 2017–2018 biennium is estimated using 1123 surveys conducted from four events included in the town’s portfolio. The research findings of this article are pioneers in the quantitative field of the study of event portfolios. This provides new opportunities for planning a strategy to attract tourism revenues
The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the contribution made by intellectual capital (IC) to company performance at company and industry levels in the Russian context. It examines the performance effect of IC using a multilevel approach.
Most of previous papers analyse the broadcast demand for a single league. However, professional football clubs participate in two or more tournaments simultaneously every season. Hence, the perception of fans may differ. This is a relevant topic once the television rights constitute the main source of revenue on professional football. The Brazilian football market is an appropriate laboratory to test it: the first division teams’ play two national-level tournaments, a state-level championship as well as the top clubs also compete in an international championship. The dataset comprises 458 broadcast matches in Brazil from 2013 to 2015. The singularity of this sample is that all matches are broadcast by the same free-to-air television channel. Three panel data linear regressions with local team fixed effects are carried out. The results indicate differences in the broadcast demand among tournaments. Marginal effects might help television channels, leagues and clubs finding optimal broadcast rights’ deals.
Th e relevant expertise of both developed and developing countries demonstrates that the use of intellectual resources is critical for improving the performance of small businesses. However, previous research draws insuffi cient attention to the configuration which refl ects the interaction of intellectual resources transforming into corporate operations results. Th is study focuses on identifying direct and indirect eff ects of individual types of intellectual resources on small business performance. According to Andreeva and Garanina (2017), Molodchik and Jardon (2017), Shakina et al. (2017), intellectual capital shows a significant potential to gain competitive advantages and improve fi nancial results in Russian business environment. Given this consideration and the fact that small business plays a crucial role in the sustainable development of the economy, we put forward several hypotheses regarding the interaction between the intellectual capital components in the performance enhancement of Russian small businesses. Verifi cation of the theoretical assumptions is based on the analysis of 126 small enterprises in Perm Krai. The empirical part of the study involves the use of principal component analysis and stepwise regression. The econometric analysis data suggests that values and attitudes of managers and employees, as well as the quality of interaction with other companies, create a direct impact on the performance of small companies in question. The indirect effect in this regard is demonstrated by other components of intellectual capital, namely the quality of business processes, information system, corporate culture, knowledge and skills of employees, cooperation with suppliers. The ultimate structure of intellectual capital which allows small companies to improve their performance is consistent with the previous studies and continues the line of research on intellectual capital, small companies, and emerging markets.
The aim of this paper is to study the influence of chief executive officers' overconfidence on corporate research and development (R&D). We analyze a sample of 766 firms from the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands between 2008 and 2013. We use 3 measures of managerial overconfidence: the press coverage of chief executive officers, his/her age, and his/her experience in the industry. Our results show that the firms run by overconfident managers actually invest more in R&D expenditures, even after controlling for country, industry, and time factors. Overconfident managers not only spend more on R&D but also amplify the effect of financial determinants of R&D such as firm liquidity or profitability. Nevertheless, overconfident managers do not invest efficiently in R&D, and these expenditures can negatively affect the value of the firm.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the demand for tickets in the Brazilian State Championships focussing in the impact generated by the brand teams as well as the play-off matches in the demand for tickets and, consequently, in the match day revenues. Design/methodology/approach – An equations system by three-stage least square estimator is employed. The data set comprises 1,114 matches from Mineiro, Carioca and Paulista Championships over the seasons 2013-2015. Findings – All explanatory variables increase both attendance and match day revenues. However, the most important goal is the distribution of wealth found. The presence of brand teams in those championships provides a financial aid for smaller teams. Practical implications – The proposals from the mass media to exclude the brand teams and design those championships exclusively in play-off stages should not be implemented by the policymakers. On the contrary, rearranging the design of the competition with more matches between small teams and brand teams may help to all of them. Originality/value – The paper contributes to introduce the Brazilian State Championships in the sport economics literature as well as evidences the redistribution effect of wealth among clubs.
This study provides readers with new information about key drivers of performance in the emerging area of eSports. Competitive computer gaming (eSports) is becoming increasingly popular, and the number of gamers and amount of prize money is growing. We therefore explore some key country-level characteristics that may contribute to players’ success, measured as money won. We use gamers’ prize earnings aggregated by country and a hurdle model to understand the determinants of performance. The results show that a 1% increase in GDP per capita leads to a 2.2% increase in prize money per capita. Country population is not statistically significant in the outcome model. This finding may indicate that eSports talents are not uniformly distributed across the world population. Surprisingly, post-Soviet and planned or post-planned economies are more likely to participate in eSports.
This article analyses the determinants of attendees’ tourism spending at professional basketball matches during the 2012/2013 season. For this purpose, it applies a linear quantile regression and considers the effect of specific sports event variables which have rarely been assessed in this type of study. Empirical results confirm that the determinants of expenditure have a different influence depending on the spending level. Individual spending is principally influenced by the origin of the attendees as well as by several other sports factors such as the time the match takes place, the admission price, or the sporting level of the rival team. The study establishes two levels of spending to identify the different behaviors that correspond to each of the factors under study. The findings could provide a useful input into tourism strategies related to the hosting of sport events.
Purpose – This paper aims to examine how a company can build and develop its relational capital in a digital environment. It searches for proxy-indicators for digital relational capital and explores their impact on company performance. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is designed to sit in the cross-section of two concepts – Big Data and Intellectual Capital.We analyze eight metrics of digital relational capital (SEMrush rank, Trust flow, Domain authority, MozRank, Number of pages indexed in Yandex and Google, Thematic Citation Index by Yandex, Alexa Rank) and examine their impact on company performance by conducting a two-stage fixedeffect regression. The empirical part of the paper is based on a database of more than 1,000 Russian public companies from 2010-2016. Findings – The study justifies eight Big Data-based metrics that enable the estimation of the digital relational capital of a company. Empirical evidence of a significant impact on corporate performance is provided. Moreover, a U-shaped configuration of obtained relationships allows for a better understanding of the phenomenon of digital relational capital and has managerial implications. Originality/value – Companies can indirectly influence the proposed metrics. The study gives specific recommendations regarding these metrics to allow companies to optimize their performance. In addition, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical research on relational capital through Big Data in Russia.
We analyse the influence of the board of directors and ownership structure on the valuation of initial public offering (IPOs) in the Spanish capital market during the period 1998–2013. After controlling for other influences such as the auditor’s reputation, the underwriter’s reputation and the level of information asymmetry, our results lend strong support for the hypothesis of the influence exerted by ownership concentration over the level of IPO underpricing. Moreover, we find a nonlinear relationship between the proportion of shares in the IPO belonging to members of the board of directors and the level of underpricing. Other IPO and firm characteristics such as the size of the offer and its structure also prove to be statistically significant. Finally, we find that the market cycle influences the valuation of IPOs, as the relationship between the market return and the initial IPO return is positive and statistically significant.