Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between export activity and firm performance for a positive impact of foreign direct investments. We also analyse two possible causes of the effect: technology transfer and financial support. The theoretical background is rooted in the resource-based approach taking into account multinational companies’ perspective and the specifics of emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach - We propose testable hypotheses based on a review of the theory. To test the hypotheses, we build a sample of over 500 Russian public manufacturing firms covering the period from 2004 to 2014 and estimate regression models. Given concerns about endogeneity, the instrumental variable approach for panel data, using GMM-estimator, is implemented. Findings - Consistent with the view that foreign direct investments generate spillover effects, our results support the positive impact of foreign ownership on the link between exports and firms’ performance. Our results underline the importance of foreign ownership: shareholders from developed countries can provide benefits to exporting companies through transferring advanced technologies and loosening financial constraints by lowering interest and raising availability of bank loans.
Originality/value - We provide new insights on the relationship between exports and firm performance. Given our focus on Russia, a market with high potential to draw foreign investments, our research sheds some light on how emerging country firms can benefit from having foreign shareholders with paying attention to geographical distribution of such investments. Specifically, through the overcoming of technological barriers and loosening of financial constraints, we show empirically that foreign capital can make up for weak local institutional infrastructure and enhance the company’s’ returns from internationalization.
This paper investigates how the recent crisis of 2008 changed relations between innovation and firm performance in Western Europe. We apply a structural framework of CDM modelling, which incorporates different stages of the knowledge creation process and takes into account the complex nature of innovations. The study is based on a balanced panel data of 420 listed manufacturing firms from the U.K., Germany and France. All the information is gathered from common sources, thereby reducing subjectivity, a typical problem in the field. We found, the crisis resulted in appreciable changes in the model. The most important evidence is enhancement of the role of firm resources in the post-recession period. We also reveal larger barriers for innovations, increased uncertainty and lower state dependence in R&D engagement, product creation and economic performance. These results could indicate the ‘cleaning effect’ of the crisis, which has worsened the business environment and enhanced competition.
This study uses a combination of multinational enterprises and dynamic capabilities perspectives to illustrate how the involvement of foreign investors is able to contribute to a company’s corporate performance. Using Russian companies as an empirical sample and applying PLS-SEM, we test hypotheses regarding the impact of dynamic capabilities in terms of absorptive, adaptive and communicative capabilities, on the relationship between foreign ownership and performance. Findings indicate that dynamic capabilities fully mediate the process of foreign direct investments transformation into firm’s results. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanism by which dynamic capabilities enhance the positive effects of foreign direct investments on business performance, and advance the theoretical understanding of how a dynamic capabilities concept could be incorporated into multinational enterprises theory in the framework of relationships between companies from economies with different knowledge endowment.
This study explores the recovery in the Market Value Added (MVA) of European companies after the recent global economic crisis in 2008–2009. It introduces empirical evidence that intangible-intensive strategy in human and relational capital reinforces speed of the after-crisis correction for companies. Based on a panel dataset of more than 1600 listed corporations this research aims to discover drivers of Market Value Added trends in 2011–2013. The established results contribute to the understanding of the advantages that companies can exploit for the recovery after systematic shocks of markets. Our study demonstrates that intangible-intensive strategy not always enabled faster recovery speed. Meanwhile, it provided year-to-year acceleration of MVA growth after crisis.
In the era of the knowledge economy intangibles are recognized by investors as pivotal value drivers. This paper proposes an intangibles-based tool for picking companies with value growth potential.Design/methodology/approach
We suggest a model to select companies that effectively use unique intangibles (in contrast to the generic intangibles). To test whether these results can be explained by skill we implement a bootstrap procedure. Companies that are able to use unique intangibles efficiently are combined in a portfolio.Findings
Only 22% of companies have the skills to use unique intangibles, but all of them are characterized by the efficiency of their use. The created portfolio demonstrates a higher cumulative return, Sharpe ratio and lower drawdown than S&P500. We also find the increasing importance of intangibles for investors during the crisis.Research limitations/implications
Both the created portfolio and the benchmark (S&P 500 index) are analyzed without transaction costs. Also the benchmark construction is based on equal-weighted sum of company M/B ratios.Originality/value
We take into account the quality of intangibles (efficiency of unique intangibles use) while previous research of portfolio forming methods is based on quantity of intangibles.
We analyze the effect of pyramidal ownership levels on the performance of Chilean firms by considering the impact of business groups. Using an unbalanced panel of 1018 firm-year observations from 88 quoted firms for the period from 2000 to 2014, we find that higher levels of separation between ownership rights and control rights decrease performance in family firms that are not part of a business group. This result suggests that too much separation of ownership and control rights in family firms can result in deviant incentives for family members to extract private benefits. However, we also find that group affiliation reduces the negative impact of the separation of ownership and control rights in family firms, which corroborates the bright side of internal capital markets for these firms.
This paper analyses the relation between corporate risk-taking and firm performance for a sample of international listed firms over the period 2001–2013. We consider the approaches on individual behavior (specifically prospect theory) to propose a U-shaped relation between corporate risk-taking and firm returns. We find that firms adopt an attitude of risk-seeking when the expected performance is below a target performance (to avoid an anticipated loss) and an attitude of risk averse when the performance exceeds that target. This relation is affected by the economic context and the nature of the major shareholder: Firms controlled by families or institutional investors react more conservatively (taking or avoiding risk) to changes in corporate results. We are aware that our results, are affected by both the theoretical model and the temporal and spatial framework used.
This paper is aimed at identifying the role of digital manufacturing in changes of marketing activities of industrial companies from the point of view of a business management system. Authors define and conceptualize the notion of “digital manufacturing”. Research design is based on the Deloitte Company methodology based on value creation approach. Customers, product, economics of production, and value chain are essential methodology parameters. Our analysis shows that implementation of digital manufacturing will necessarily significantly change entire business model and marketing activity of the company. The main drivers of this process are building and maintaining relationship with customers and new opportunities related to product design and production. Interaction with customers without intermediaries, customers’ involvement in the processes of new products development, new technical possibilities of creating personalized product-service solution are main changes in marketing activities caused by the implementation of digital manufacturing at the company.
Prior evidence suggests that board independence may enhance financial performance, but this relationship has been tested almost exclusively for Anglo-American countries. To explore the boundary conditions of this prominent governance mechanism, we examine the impact of the formal and information institutions of 18 national business systems on the board independence-financial performance relationship. Our results show that while the direct effect of independence is weak, national-level institutions significantly moderate the independence-performance relationship. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of board structures is likely to be contingent on the specific national context, but the type of legal system is insignificant.
This paper aims to analyze how ownership influences the performance of European football teams. The study of efficiency allows us to identify relative performance in the achievement of several objectives, as is the case of football teams pursuing both financial performance and sports success. The analysis shows that football teams organized as members clubs, with dispersed ownership and uncontrolled by foreign investors perform better. Thus, property structures facilitating less control over managers relate positively to performance.
Indices of economic freedom have been created for over 150 countries and for a variety of sub-national areas. This is the first index measuring economic freedom at the sub-national level within Russia. The index looks at the 82 regions1 of the Russian Federation from the country’s independence in 1991 to its most recent developments in 2015. The index ranks each region on economic freedom at both the regional and the all-government (federal, regional, and municipal) levels. This allows both isolating the impact of government intervention on economic freedom within the country and providing useful comparisons across countries. The regional index evaluates the degree of economic freedom in each region of Russia compared with other Russian regions. The all-government index allows comparing sub-national units in different countries to one another.
This study explores the value creation and agent conflict in a company that employs intangibles. The conceptual model of value creation is used to test how intangibles affect companies' outperforming and simultaneously build investors' expectations. The research is carried out using a sample of more than 1,650 European companies covering the period from 2004 to 2011. The study reveals the diverse impact of intangibles on the outperforming of a company by Economic Value Added (EVA) and its ability to create market value (MVA). The study discovers that managers are prone to set positive signals for investors rather than create sustainable competitive advantages. This work contributes primarily to the field of corporate governance in companies that employ intangibles. The issues to be considered when designing rules and incentives for proper communication between managers and investors that drive both outperforming and sustainable value creation are emphasized.
Research question: Previous papers analysing broadcast demand for sports have provided general findings for the countries studied. However, each region in the same country could have different determinants. The present study aims to analyse the demand for broadcast football, emphasising the effect of the uncertainty of outcomes in Brazil’s two biggest markets: Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Research methods: The dataset comprises an unbalanced panel with club fixed effects, including all 228 broadcast matches from the Brazilian League across the seasons 2013 to 2015 – 115 from the state of Rio de Janeiro and 113 from the state of São Paulo. Three linear regressions are carried out in order to determine the importance of the uncertainty of outcome, as well as the existence of win preference or loss aversion behaviours.
Results and findings: The results highlight similarities between the markets, such as higher audiences on weekdays and the strong importance of derby matches in attracting viewers. However, the findings reveal that Rio de Janeiro fans exhibit loss aversion and São Paulo supporters prefer more certain matches.
Implications: Consumer preferences may differ across a country. Hence, by understanding the diversity in fan behaviour, TV channels might more effectively adjust the matches they broadcast, increasing fan interest in these games, as well as enhancing the channels’ and the clubs’ revenues.
In pursuit of economic growth and development, companies have tried to strike a balance between competition and monopoly power. This paper reviews the evidence on industrial concentration and its economic correlates (notably firms’ performance as measured by innovation output) in frame of emerging markets conditions. Competition theory was developed in countries under assumptions that do not necessarily fit the emerging countries. Our main research question is whether the level of local market concentration influences (and if it does, in which way) on innovation activity undertaken by companies operating on emerging markets. Apart from linear association, the empirical literature suggests that industrial concentration could exhibit an inverted U-relationship as far as its link to certain economic indicators of success, such as innovation output. We measure concentration by using the Herfindahl-Hirshman Index. This paper finds empirical evidence in support of the Schumpeterian hypothesis that more concentrated industries stimulate innovation and observes the inverted U-relationship curve. Further, the empirical model demonstrates the relative importance of technological leadership in concentration industries for enhance innovations. This suggests a role for recalibrating firm and industry policies amend.
Prior research on market timing theory in relation to developing markets only analyzes equity issuance and provides contradictory results. Using a sample of large Russian companies in nonfinancial sectors between 2008 and 2015, this paper analyzes both equity and debt market timing to explore the impact of market timing on firms’ capital structure. To test the robustness of the results, we use several proxies for both timing types and include Russian-specific control variables of corporate governance and ownership. The results show that Russian companies time the debt market to attract extra capital if the value of the interest rate in the current period is lower than the rates in previous periods. The net debt issued decreases when interest rates are high, which indicates debt market timing. Consistent with previous studies, we find that Russian companies do not time the equity market. Added corporate governance factors suggest that younger boards of directors prefer debt financing to equity issuance, as well as more experienced ones. State ownership is negatively connected with leverage.
We combine agency theory with the law and finance approach to analyze how the legal protection of investors and the corporate ownership structure affect corporate investment in research and development (R&D). We use information from 956 firms from the five most R&D-intensive industries in 19 developed countries. Our results show that better protection of investors’ rights by the institutional environment has a positive influence on corporate R&D. We also find that corporate ownership concentration works as a substitute for legal protection. This finding means that R&D investment of the firms in the countries with poor legal protection increases as ownership becomes more concentrated. Our results also show that the identity of shareholders has a relevant effect: Whereas banks and nonfinancial institutions as shareholders result in lower R&D, institutional investors as shareholders increase corporate investment in R&D.